On the product scheme of 10 Gigabit Ethernet

2022-08-23
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Talking about the product scheme of 10 Gigabit Ethernet

with the rapid growth of IP traffic, the demand for network bandwidth is also growing. The market urgently needs a new technology with simple, reliable and economic characteristics to provide higher bandwidth, which can be applied to local, metropolitan and wide areas at the same time. The technology that can meet these requirements is 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GE) technology

due to its reasonable price, excellent stability and reliability, and relatively simple and easy installation, management and maintenance, Ethernet is becoming more and more popular. Ethernet technology has been proved to be the mainstream network technology, occupying an absolutely leading market share

standard: optical fiber and copper wire work together

10 Gigabit Ethernet is the latest technology in the Ethernet world. It is not only ten times faster than Gigabit Ethernet, but also has been more expanded in the scope of application. 10 Gigabit Ethernet is not only suitable for all traditional local area applications, but also can be extended to the metropolitan area and wide area where traditional Ethernet technology is limited. Gigabit Ethernet can be seamlessly compatible with DWDM transmission, extending Ethernet communication to a global range without distance restrictions

in the process of 10 Gigabit Ethernet standardization, IEEE and 10gea (10 Gigabit Ethernet Alliance) are the two most important organizations. IEEE is the institution responsible for formulating the 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard, and has issued the 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard IEEE 802.3ae in June, 2002. 10gea is an industry technology alliance composed of leading equipment manufacturers, which is committed to the standardization and interoperability of 10 Gigabit Ethernet, as well as promoting the global application of 10 Gigabit Ethernet

ieee 802.3ae 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard

ieee 802.3ae 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard mainly includes the following contents: compatible with the minimum and maximum Ethernet frame length defined in 802.3 standard; Only full duplex mode is supported; Use point-to-point links and structured cabling to form a local area of star physical structure; Support 802.3ad link convergence protocol; Realize 10Gbps speed on mac/pls service interface; Define two phys (physical layer specification), namely local PHY and wide area PHY; Define the adaptation mechanism that corresponds the data transmission rate of mac/pls to the wide area PHY data transmission rate; Define the physical layer specifications that support specific physical media related interfaces (PMD), including multimode fiber and single-mode fiber, and the corresponding transmission distance; It supports the types of optical fiber media defined in iso/iec 11801 second edition, etc

10 Gigabit Ethernet physical layer specification

the physical (PHY) layer specification of 10 Gigabit Ethernet and the supported optical components are defined in ieee802.3ae. In the Ethernet standard, the optical component part is called "physical medium correlation layer interface (PMD)". The four PHY types of the 10 Gigabit Ethernet physical layer include the following

a. serial LAN phy

serial LAN PHY consists of 64b/66b codec mechanism and serial/anti serial components (SerDes). The 64b/66b encoding and decoding mechanism performs packet encoding of data packets. SerDes serializes the 16 bit parallel data path (644mbps per path) into a 10.3gbps data stream, which is processed by serial optical components or PMD at the transmission end. At the receiving end, SerDes converts a 10.3gbps serial data stream back to a 16 bit parallel data path (644mbps per channel)

b. serial Wan PHY

serial wide area PHY is composed of wide area interface sublayer (WIS), 64b/66b encoding and decoding mechanism and SerDes components. The only difference between SerDes in serial wide area phy and serial local area PHY is that the speed of serial data stream is 9.95gbps (OC-192), and the speed of 16 bit parallel data path is 622Mbps per channel. Serial wide area PHY makes the 10 Gigabit Ethernet fully match the OC-192 interface of the existing sonet/sdh network or the 10Gbps interface rate of DWDM optical transmission

c. 4-lane LAN phy and 4-lane Wan PHY

4-lane PHY are a form of extended AUI interface (XAUI). XAUI is composed of 4-bit data paths, and the width of each data path is 3.125gbps. 4-lane widely improves the dimensional stability domain of products. The interface specification definition of phy includes XAUI, 64/66b codec, Wis and Supi. Supi is a wide area PHY wwdm PMD interface, which is composed of 4-bit width and 2.488gbps data path

D. interface type of 10 Gigabit Ethernet medium correlation layer (PMD)

Table 1 lists the relationship between 10 Gigabit Ethernet PHY, PMD and optical fiber type and maximum transmission distance. The first four PMDS are defined in IEEE 802.3ae. Although the latter two PMDS are not defined in the standard, they are available in the market. Using 850nm new high band multimode fiber (hdmmf), it can support the transmission length up to 300 meters

latest progress of 10 Gigabit Ethernet

after the development of 802.3ae, IEEE is now working on the research and development of 10 Gigabit Ethernet transmission standard on copper wire. In November, 2002, two organizations were established to study copper 10 Gigabit Ethernet. One organization studied 10gbaset on CAT5e or CAT6 twisted pair; Another organization is studying the method of implementing 10 Gigabit Ethernet with four pairs of coaxial cables

at present, some chip manufacturers and switch manufacturers are developing copper 10 Gigabit Ethernet products, such as solarflare communications and Broadcom, and other chip manufacturers are developing 10 Gigabit Ethernet chips based on copper. Force10 network, a leading manufacturer of 10 Gigabit Ethernet switches, plans to launch 10 Gigabit Ethernet modules based on copper wires by the end of this year

in addition, with the formulation of 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard, the optical module technology of 10 Gigabit Ethernet has also developed rapidly. There are five kinds of 10 Gigabit Ethernet optical modules: 300 pin MSA module, xenpak, xpak, X2 and XFP. Among them, 300 pin MSA module belongs to the first generation module, which was originally designed for SDH network, with large size and relatively expensive price. Xenpak is the first generation optical module for 10 Gigabit Ethernet, which is low in price and small in size compared with 300 pin MSA.

now various optical module manufacturers are actively developing miniaturized 10G Optical modules. Xpak and X2 are the direct improved versions of xenpak module, with the volume reduced by 40%, and the optical interface and electrical interface are consistent with the original. XFP being developed by Finisar and other companies is different from the above MSA. In terms of electrical interface, the standard XAUI interface is not adopted, but the self-defined XFI interface is adopted. XFP supports local PHY and wide area PHY, and is pluggable, smaller in size, and more competitive in price. Therefore, XFP may occupy the mainstream position in the 10 Gigabit Ethernet optical module market

Application: local metropolitan area wide area three-way attack

10 Gigabit Ethernet technology breaks through the limitations of traditional Ethernet short-range transmission. In addition to being applied in local areas and parks, it can also be conveniently applied in metropolitan areas or even wide areas to build high-performance network cores

broadband IP Metro

10 Gigabit Ethernet devices can provide high-density 10 Gigabit and Gigabit Ethernet interfaces to provide metropolitan and wide area connections for service providers and enterprise users. 10 Gigabit Ethernet can transmit up to 40 ~ 80 kilometers on bare optical fiber, meeting the requirements of metropolitan area. DWDM and sdh/sonet devices can also be connected to realize wide area transmission

enterprise and campus

with the rapid growth of enterprise and campus network applications, the backbone of enterprise and campus is under the pressure of continuous upgrading. From the original fast Ethernet to the current gigabit network, it will soon transition to 10 Gigabit network to provide users with services such as multimedia services, data flow content, San and so on. With the characteristics of high bandwidth, low delay and simple network management, 10 Gigabit Ethernet devices are very suitable for enterprise and campus backbone construction

data center and Internet switching center

with the popularity of Internet applications, a large number of data access needs an upgradeable and high-performance content service convergence network. The data center needs to converge hundreds of Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet lines. At the user end, the server convergence network should provide high-density ge/10ge routers and switches with L2 switching and L3 routing. 10 Gigabit Ethernet devices can meet the needs of convergence networks and reserve space for future network upgrades

Supercomputing Center

large enterprises and research institutions need powerful computer systems. They are changing from traditional mainframe computers and supercomputers to server clusters composed of dozens to hundreds of small commercial computers, with high-performance Ethernet connections between the clusters. Clusters can be distributed in different places, and they are interconnected through metropolitan areas and wide areas to form computing grids. 10 Gigabit Ethernet devices provide high-density ports, loose line speed switching performance, and comprehensive L2 switching and L3 routing capabilities, which can fully meet the requirements of high-performance network interconnection within the Supercomputing Center Server Cluster, and also meet the connection between server clusters distributed in different places in the same computing network

purchase: first identify the types and then look at the indicators

10 Gigabit Ethernet product types

with the formulation of 10 Gigabit Ethernet standards, many products supporting 10 Gigabit Ethernet have appeared on the market. From its product architecture, the current 10 Gigabit Ethernet products can be divided into two categories: one is 10 Gigabit Ethernet switching module; The other is a real 10 Gigabit Ethernet switch/router

10 Gigabit Ethernet interface module

at present, most products supporting 10 Gigabit Ethernet in the market are adding 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface module on the basis of Gigabit Ethernet switch/router. Gigabit Ethernet switch products have been mature in technology after several years of development since they came out in 1997. In order to enter the 10 Gigabit Ethernet market as soon as possible, many Gigabit Ethernet equipment providers directly add 10 Gigabit Ethernet modules to Gigabit products. 10 Gigabit Ethernet technology and Gigabit Ethernet technology define the specifications of MAC layer and physical layer, which are transparent to the upper layer protocol. The switch with Gigabit Ethernet architecture plus 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface module is a more economical network solution

however, because Gigabit Ethernet switches are designed according to the requirements of Gigabit in terms of architecture design, backplane bandwidth, switching capacity and ASIC processing capacity, when the interface speed is increased by 10 times to 10 Gigabit, they are usually not competent, and there is not enough expansion capacity to meet the future network upgrade. For example, the interface bandwidth between the line card slot and the backplane of most Gigabit Ethernet switches is only 8gbps. Even if each line card has only one 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface, it is impossible to achieve the speed of 10 Gigabit in theory. In addition, the capacity of switching matrix, packet forwarding ability and packet processing chip will seriously affect the ability of the whole switch to support 10 Gigabit Ethernet. Therefore, Gigabit Ethernet switches that only support 10 Gigabit Ethernet modules cannot be called "10 Gigabit Ethernet switches" in the real sense

10 Gigabit Ethernet switches/routers

switches/routers that really redesign the architecture for 10 Gigabit Ethernet technology are usually called "next generation" products by manufacturers, and now such products can be found in the market. The main features of 10 Gigabit Ethernet switch/router in hardware design are as follows

a. backplane bandwidth

the interface bandwidth between the line card slot and the backplane is one of the most basic and important indicators to measure 10 Gigabit Ethernet devices. For switches/routers designed for 10 Gigabit Ethernet, the backplane interface bandwidth of the line card slot needs to be at least 10Gbps. The ideal device is to have an interface bandwidth of no less than 40Gbps (bidirectional) to support the density of four 10 Gigabit Ethernet interfaces of a single line card. At the same time, the selected equipment should meet the requirements that the switch only needs to replace the line card without replacing the system backplane when the line card port density increases in the future. When the total bandwidth of the user port on the line card exceeds the bandwidth between the line card and the backplane, it is called

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